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1. At the Congress of Vienna, the Austrian representative Prince Metternich pursued the policy of
Legitimacy, meaning
a. he wished to legitimate the French defeat.
b. he sought legitimate control over central Europe to benefit Austria.
c. wishing to restore legitimate monarchs on their thrones, preserving traditional institutions and values.
d. he sought legitimate proof of England’s economic and industrial support of Austria.
e. he demanded that the state churches, Catholic or Protestant, become the primary rulers throughout all of Europe.

2. After Napoleon’s defeat, the Quadruple Alliance
a. sent troops to sack Paris.
b. restored the old Bourbon monarchy to France in the person of Louis XVIII.
c. returned Corsica to Italian control.
d. delivered an ultimatum to the pope demanding full control over all of Italy.
e. declared war against the Ottoman Empire.

3. The Congress of Vienna
a. gave Prussia complete control over Polish lands.
b. created policies that would maintain the European balance of power.
c. failed to achieve long-lasting peace among European nations.
d. treated France leniently following Napoleon’s One Hundred Days.
e. sanctioned the political power of the bourgeoisie.


4. The foreign minister and diplomat who dominated the Congress of Vienna was
a. Klemens von Metternich.
b. Prince Talleyrand.
c. Tsar Alexander I.
d. Napoleon.
e. Duke of Wellington.

5. Klemens von Metternich
a. supported much of the revolutionary ideology after Napoleon’s defeat.
b. thought that a free press was necessary to maintain the status quo.
c. had little influence because of his extreme conservatism.
d. was anti-religious and supported atheistic causes.
e. believed European monarchs shared the common interest of stability.

6. Conservatism, the dominant political philosophy following the fall of Napoleon
a. was rejected by the Congress of Vienna as inappropriate in the new liberal age.
b. expressed that individual rights remained the best guide for human order.
c. was exemplified by Edmund Burke’s Reflections on the Revolution in France, emphasizing the dangers of radical and “rational” political change.
d. was too radical for Joseph de Maistre, the French spokesman for evolutionary conservatism.
e. advocated the creation of oligarchic republics.

7. At its most elementary Burkean level, conservatism
a. sought to preserve the achievements of previous generations by subordinating individual rights to communal welfare.
b. became the most popular political philosophy in Russia.
c. sought above all else the achievement of individual rights.
d. was never popular among the political elite of Europe.
e. championed individual rights and laissez-faire government.

8. The Congress of Vienna was most successful at
a. ending the political domination of the Holy Alliance.
b. thwarting Britain’s attempts to intervene and crush revolts in Italy and Spain.
c. crushing the colonial revolts in Latin America.
d. establishing an order that managed to avoid a general European conflict for almost a century.
e. preserving the gains of the revolutionary era.

9. The most important factor in preventing the European overthrow of the newly independent nations of
Latin America was
a. European economic collapse.
b. the Monroe Doctrine guiding American foreign policy.
c. the sheer size of South America.
d. growing support for pacifism in Europe.
e. British naval power.

10. The Greek revolt was successful largely due to
a. a well-trained guerrilla army.
b. the Turks’ lack of fortitude.
c. European intervention.
d. superior Greek military tactics.
e. adopting a policy of peaceful coexistence.


11. When protestors of high bread prices in England clashed with government authorities, the resulting
conflict was known as the
a. St. Paul’s Massacre.
b. Charing Cross Incident.
c. Peterloo Massacre.
d. Trafalgar Spectacle.
e. Battle of King’s Cross.


12. By 1815, following the Congress of Vienna, the Italian peninsula
a. was entirely unified as a single country.
b. remained divided into several states subject to the domination of other European powers.
c. had been devastated by the last campaigns of Napoleon.
d. had been completely annexed by Austria, a move confirmed by the Congress.
e. sunk into complete anarchy and chaos.

13. The growing forces of liberalism and nationalism in central Europe were exemplified by the
a. increased liberal reforms of Frederick William III of Prussia between 1815 and 1840.
b. national affinity and unity felt by the many Austrian ethnic groups under Frederick II.
c. liberal constitutions of the states of the German Confederation.
d. Burschenschaften, the student societies of Germany.
e. the enlightened leadership of central European political elites.

14. The Karlsbad Decrees of 1819 did all of the following except
a. disband the Burschenshaften.
b. impose censorship on the German press.
c. placed most German universities under close government supervision.
d. dissolved several smaller German states.
e. placed restrictions upon university activities.

15. Following the death of Alexander I in 1825, Russian society under Nicholas I became
a. the most liberal of the European powers.
b. rapidly industrialized.
c. an industrial power after the abolition of serfdom.
d. increasingly influenced by ultra-conservative societies, such as the Northern Union.
e. became a police state, as the czar feared both internal and external revolutionary upheavals.

16. The argument that population must be held in check for any progress to take place was popularized by
a. Adam Smith.
b. David Ricardo.
c. Joseph de Maistre.
d. Edmund Burke.
e. Thomas Malthus.





17. Which of the following statements best applies to David Ricardo?
a. He was an advocate of a social welfare system.
b. He believed that the poor should best be ignored.
c. He believed that individual effort could always overcome industrial and urban poverty.
d. He developed the idea of the “iron law of wages.”
e. He argued that the population would always outrun the food supply.

18. The foremost social group embracing liberalism was made up by
a. factory workers.
b. the industrial middle class.
c. radical aristocrats.
d. army officers.
e. the landed gentry.


19. J.S. Mill’s On the Subjection of Women stated that
a. women should be kept in the home to improve men’s chances of finding work.
b. men and women did not possess different natures.
c. Parliament should admit women members immediately.
d. female convicts be shipped out to colonize Australia.
e. God and nature had ordained the permanent inferiority of women.

20. Central to the liberal ideology in the nineteenth century was
a. child labor laws.
b. the preservation of law and order.
c. an emphasis on individual freedom.
d. the buildup of a nation’s military.
e. the creation of a socialist community.


21. The growing movement of nationalism in nineteenth-century Europe
a. was resisted by liberals, who felt that all ethnic groups should live together harmoniously.
b. advocated the formation of one European nation to end economic and military conflicts.
c. was radical since it encouraged people to shift their political loyalty away from existing states and rulers.
d. found its best expression in the writings of John Stuart Mill.
e. declined after the Congress of Vienna.

22. The utopian socialists of the first half of the nineteenth century were best characterized by
a. Charles Fourier, who envisioned cooperative communities called “phalansteries.”
b. Flora Tristan, who rejected the programs for female equality proposed by other socialists.
c. Louis Blanc, who wished for the demise of government in favor of individuals providing for their own welfare.
d. Henri de Saint-Simon, who established a cooperative community in the U.S. that failed.
e. Karl Marx, in The Communist Manifesto.





23. In the July revolution of 1830,
a. Charles X agreed to become a constitutional monarch.
b. Louis Napoleon launched a violent movement against the monarchy.
c. Louis-Philippe succeeded Charles X as king of the French.
d. Louis XVIII abdicated in favor of his cousin, Charles Bourbon.
e. the Second Republic was proclaimed.


24. King Louis-Philippe in France
a. did all he could to help the impoverished industrial workers.
b. cooperated with François Guizot and the Party of Resistance against the Party of Movement.
c. allowed for great reforms in the electoral system.
d. was the son of the former reactionary King Charles X.
e. died peacefully in France.

25. The most successful nationalistic European revolution in 1830 was in
a. Poland.
b. Germany.
c. Italy.
d. the United Provinces.
e. Belgium.

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