Evolutionary spandrels | Biology homework help

 Read the article by Gould and Lewontin (1979).  This article presents a  critique of the way evolutionary biology was evaluating selection and  adaptation. This article spawned a major turning point for the field.   It provides the notion that some traits arise simply as a structural  byproduct of selection on other traits. This means that observed or  inferred functional differences cannot always be equated to adaptive  changes.
 

After reading this article, write a short essay describing how this idea  of constraints impact evolution and the way in which researchers should  study evolution. What information would Gould and Lewontin need to  justify calling a trait an adaptation? What are the main critiques of  the Adaptationist Programme? How important do you think the evolutionary  history of the species is when considering if a trait is an adaptation?  How important do you think constraints are to the process of evolution?  Explain your reasoning for these opinions. Be sure to relate back to  the readings, lectures, and/or videos that you watched in Modules 2 and  3.
 

 Requirements
One-half to one typed-page, single-spaced, times new roman, and 12 point  font.  DO NOT GO OVER ONE PAGE.  Include your name and your section  number at the top of the page and upload your assignment as a Word  document by the due date. Be concise and logical in your writing 

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